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Complex Knee Ligament Injuries

Other popular names

Who does it affect?

Normally people involved in serious accidents or high impact sport.

Why does it happen?

A complex ligament injury of the knee implies that more than one of the major knee ligaments have been damaged. The major knee ligaments are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and the lateral collateral ligament (LCL). The LCL has important associated structures grouped together and is referred to as the postero-lateral corner.

Patients who sustain a complex knee injury will usually have experienced a major accident or high energy twisting injury and often have associated meniscal, articular cartilage injures and sometimes associated fractures.

Symptoms

A combination of pain, swelling, instability and tenderness which may be localised or extended depending upon the injury.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of complex knee ligament injuries is made from the knowledge of the accident and an understanding of the mechanism of injury.  This will be ratified during your clinical examination by the orthopaedic consultant.

It is often necessary to take x-rays of the knee sometimes using multiple views. In addition you may be asked to undergo an MRI scan to provide a detailed injury analysis. An angiogram (special X-ray involving injection of dye) may be required to evaluate the circulation in the leg as the  blood vessels around the knee can be seriously injured in association with multi-ligament injuries.

Non-surgical treatment

Fortunately, complex ligament injuries of the knee are quite rare and as would be expected, treatment is more complicated and is different for each patient and their individual pattern of injury.

Sometimes surgery is required as soon as possible after the injury.  However, sometimes no surgery is required immediately but surgery is planned for a later date when the patient has recovered from the acute injury.

Surgery usually involves multiple ligament reconstruction and the rehabilitation process is usually longer and more complex than individual repair techniques.

The results of surgery for such injuries is, as one would expect are more unpredictable and tends to depend on the specific injuries sustained.

Surgical treatment

The techniques described for ACL, PCL, MCL and LHL will be combined.  It is difficult to give details of the exact procedure to be performed as this will depend on the specific injury.

This surgery will be performed under general anaesthetic and could take anything from 30 – 90 minutes.

Post-surgery rehabilitation

You are likely to stay in hospital 1-3 days.  All patients will need someone to take them home.

The anaesthetic will wear off after approximately 6 hours.  Simple analgesia (pain killers) usually controls the pain and should be started before the anaesthetic has worn off. 

Patients need to use crutches for the first 2 weeks following surgery although they can fully weight-bear - the crutches are mainly to prevent falls until good muscle control has been regained to the leg.

Dressings

The large bandage around the knee is normally removed 24-48 hours after surgery and a tubigrip to supply gentle compression to reduce post-operative swelling.

The non-stick sterile dressings on the wounds are replaced with clean waterproof dressings .  The larger incision over the site of the hamstring tendon harvest site is closed using dissolving stitches and the paper butterfly sutures overlying this can be peeled away easily after 10 days.

Return to normal routine

Bathing and showering

The wounds should be kept clean and dry until the wound has sealed. Showering is fine and the waterproof dressings can be changed afterwards. Bathing is best avoided until the wounds are sealed, typically 10 days after surgery.
In summary, whilst the wounds are wet - keep them dry and when the wounds are dry, you can get them wet!

Rehabilitation

Surgery is followed by a prolonged course of physiotherapy. This requires a commitment to undertake this rehabilitation in order to achieve the best possible result (at least half an hour per day for 6 months).  It is vitally important to stay within the post-operative activity restrictions an physiotherapy guidelines to avoid damaging stretching your reconstructed ligament.

Return to work

The timing of your return to work depends on the type of work and your access, however, the following is a general guide:

Driving

When you can walk without crutches or a limp and be in control of your vehicle (about 3-6 weeks).

Risks

Ligament reconstruction is an extremely safe and reliable operation. However there is a risk of problems or complications with any surgery.

These risks include:

All these risks are uncommon and in total, the chance of you or your knee being worse off in the long term is about or less than 1%.

 

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